Affiliated Eye Hospital of Nanchang University
National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.82060181); the Scientific Research Foundation of the Education Office Jiangxi Province（GJJ210201）
The finite element method (FEM) is a widely employed mathematical technique in mechanical research that divides an object into discrete and interacting finite elements. In medical research, finite element analysis (FEA) enables the simulation of biomechanical experiments that are challenging to conduct. Orbital surgery poses significant challenges to ophthalmologists due to its inherent difficulty and steep learning curve. FEM enables the simulation and analysis of the mechanical properties of orbital tissue, offering a novel approach for diagnosing and treating orbital-related diseases. With technological advancements, FEM has significantly matured in the diagnosis and treatment of orbital diseases, establishing itself as a prominent area of research in orbital biomechanics. This paper examines the recent advancements in orbital FEM, encompassing the development of orbital FEA models, simulation of orbital structure, and its application in orbital-related diseases. Additionally, the limitations of FEM and future research directions are also discussed. As a digital tool for auxiliary diagnosis and treatment, orbital FEA will progressively unlock its potential for diagnosing and treating orbital diseases alongside technological advancements.