Time in range as a useful marker for evaluating retinal functional changes in diabetic retinopathy patients

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    AIM: To elucidate the relationship between macular sensitivity and time in range (TIR) obtained from continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) measures in diabetic patients with or without diabetic retinopathy (DR). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study including 100 eyes of non-DR patients and 60 eyes of DR patients. An advanced microperimetry was used to quantitate the retinal mean sensitivity (MS) and fixation stability in central macula. TIR of 3.9-10.0 mmol/L was evaluated with CGM. Pearson coefficient analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were used to assess the correlation between TIR and retinal sensitivity. RESULTS: In a comparison of non-DR patients, significant differences (P<0.05) were found in HbA1c, TIR, coefficient of variation (CV), standard deviation of blood glucose (SDBG) and mean amplitude of glucose excursion (MAGE) values in DR patients. Besides, those DR patients had significantly poor best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, logMAR, P=0.001). In terms of microperimetry parameters, retinal mean sensitivity (MS) and the percentages of fixation points located within 2° and 4° diameter circles were significantly decreased in the DR group (P<0.001, P<0.001, P=0.02, respectively). The bivariate contour ellipse area (BCEA) encompassing 68.2%, 95.4%, 99.6% of fixation points were all significantly increased in the DR group (P=0.01, P=0.006, P=0.01, respectively). Correlation analysis showed that MS were significantly correlated with HbA1c (P=0.01). TIR was positively correlated with MS (r=0.23, P=0.01). SDBG was negatively correlated with MS (r=-0.24, P=0.01) but there was no correlation between CV and MAGE with MS (P>0.05). A multivariable linear regression analysis was performed to prove that TIR and SDBG were both independent risk factors for MS reduction in the DR group. CONCLUSION: TIR is correlated with retinal MS reduction in DR patients, suggesting a useful option for evaluating DR progression.

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Dan-Dan Zhu, Xuan Wu, Xin-Xuan Cheng, Ning Ding. Time in range as a useful marker for evaluating retinal functional changes in diabetic retinopathy patients. Int J Ophthalmol 2023;16(6):915-920

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  • Received:March 29,2023
  • Revised:April 24,2023
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  • Online: May 30,2023
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