Epidemiological aspect of retinoblastoma in the world: a review of recent advance studies
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Hassan Hashemi. Noor Research Center for Ophthalmic Epidemiology, Noor Eye Hospital, Tehran 1983963113, Iran. hhashemi@noorvision.com


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    AIM: To collect and present updated evidence about epidemiological aspects of retinoblastoma (Rb) in the world. METHODS: A comprehensive search without the time and language restrictions was conducted in international databases, including MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, and PubMed. The search keywords were “retinoblastoma” OR “retinal Neuroblastoma” OR “retinal glioma” OR “retinoblastoma eye cancer” OR “retinal glioblastoma”. RESULTS: The worldwide incidence of Rb is 1 in 16 000-28 000 live births, but was higher in developing compared to developed countries. Several attempts for improving early detection and treatment had increased the Rb survival rate from 5% to 90% in developed countries over the past decade, but its survival was lower in developing countries (about 40% in low-income countries) and the majority of mortalities occurred in developing countries. The etiology of Rb could be viewed as genetics in the heritable form and environmental and lifestyle factors in the sporadic form. Some environmental risk factors such as in vitro fertilization; insect sprays; father’s occupational exposure to oil mists in metal working, and poor living conditions might play a role in the occurrence of the disease. Although ethnicity might affect Rb incidence, sex has no documented effect and the best treatment approaches were now ophthalmic artery chemosurgery and intravitreal chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: Determining the role of genetics and environmental factors helps to accurately predict the prognosis and identify the mechanism of the disease, which can reduce the risk of tumor development.

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Leili Koochakzadeh, Abbasali Yekta, Hassan Hashemi, et al. Epidemiological aspect of retinoblastoma in the world: a review of recent advance studies. Int J Ophthalmol, 2023,16(6):962-968

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  • Received:October 10,2022
  • Revised:April 04,2023
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  • Online: May 30,2023
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