Three-dimensional bioprinting in ophthalmic care
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Saleha Al-Atawi. Al-baha University, Applied Medical Science, Al-Aqiaq, AlBaha 4781, Saudi Arabia.


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    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is widely used in ophthalmic clinic, including in diagnosis, surgery, prosthetics, medications, drug development and delivery, and medical education. Articles published in 2011–2022 into bioinks, printing technologies, and bioprinting applications in ophthalmology were reviewed and the strengths and limitations of bioprinting in ophthalmology highlighted. The review highlighted the trade-offs of printing technologies and bioinks in respect to, among others, material type cost, throughput, gelation technique, cell density, cell viability, resolution, and printing speed. There is already widespread ophthalmological application of bioprinting outside clinical settings, including in educational modelling, retinal imaging/visualization techniques and drug design/testing. In clinical settings, bioprinting has already found application in pre-operatory planning. Even so, the findings showed that even with its immense promise, actual translation to clinical applications remains distant, but relatively closer for the corneal (except stromal) tissues, epithelium, endothelium, and conjunctiva, than it was for the retina. This review similarly reflected on the critical on the technical, practical, ethical, and cost barrier to rapid progress of bioprinting in ophthalmology, including accessibility to the most sophisticated bioprinting technologies, choice, and suitability of bioinks, tissue viability and storage conditions. The extant research is encouraging, but more work is clearly required for the push towards clinical translation of research.

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Saleha Al-Atawi. Three-dimensional bioprinting in ophthalmic care. Int J Ophthalmol 2023;16(10):1702-1711

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  • Received:January 19,2023
  • Revised:May 04,2023
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  • Online: September 19,2023
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