• Volume 15,Issue 1,2022 Table of Contents
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    • >Basic Research
    • Effect of miR-184 and miR-205 on the tumorigenesis of conjunctival mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma through regulating RasL10B and TNFAIP8

      2022, 15(1):1-8. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.01.01

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      Abstract:AIM: To explore the effect of miR-184 and miR-205 on the proliferation and metastasis of conjunctival mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. METHODS: Tissue of tumor and adjacent normal control from 5 patients with conjunctival MALT was included. RPMI8226 cell line was selected to verify the effect of miRNAs in B cells. The function of microRNA on the RPMI8226 cell apoptosis, migration and invasion was evaluated by apoptosis assay and Transwell assay. The mRNA and protein expression were examined by quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting. The effect of microRNA on regulation of downstream gene expression was evaluated by luciferase report assay. RESULTS: A decreased level of miR-184 and miR-205 was observed in MALT lymphoma tissue. Exogenous miR-184 and miR-205 analogues promoted apoptosis, and inhibited the survival, migration, and invasion of RPMI8226 cells. miR-184 and miR-205 inhibitor reversed the process. The RNA and protein level of RasL10B and TNFAIP8 were downregulated in MALT lymphoma tissue. The exogenous of miR-184 and miR-205 promoted the expression of RasL10B and TNFAIP8. Meanwhile, inhibition of miR-184 and miR-205 repressed the expression of target gene, RasL10B and TNFAIP8. CONCLUSION: miR-184 and miR-205 suppresses the tumorigenesis of conjunctival MALT lymphoma through regulating RasL10B and TNFAIP8.

    • Effect of nano-selenium loaded with lycium barbarum polysaccharide on the proliferation of lens epithelial cells after UVB damage in vitro

      2022, 15(1):9-14. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.01.02

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      Abstract:AIM: To investigate the effect of nano-selenium loaded with different concentrations of lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP-SeNPs) on the proliferation of human lens epithelial cells (HLECs) from UV irradiation. METHODS: LBP-SeNPs were prepared and their particle size was detected. HLECs (SRA01/04) were irradiated with UVB for different time (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60min) to construct a damaged model, the survival rate of cells was determined by methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay. The 4’,6-Diamidine-2’-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI) staining was used to observe the status of cell nucleus and drug entering cytoplasm through cell membrane in SRA01/04 cells after adding LBP-SENPS loaded with coumarin fluorescence agent 24h under fluorescence microscope. SRA01/04 normal and UVB-damaged cells were treated with different amounts of LBP-SeNPs at different concentrations, cells proliferation were observed. RESULTS: The particle size of LBP-SeNPs was stable in the range of 150-200 nm. The survival rate changes with time after UVB irradiation were statistically significant. The 10min of UVB exposure as the time was chosen to construct the cell damage model. With DAPI staining, LBP-SeNPs were observed to enter the cytoplasm through the cell membrane under fluorescence inverted microscope. Cytotoxicity of SRA01/04 at different concentrations of LBP-SeNPs were measured. Cell survival rate was statistically different compared with the control group. The higher the loading concentration of LBP in nano-Se drugs was, the higher the cell proliferation rate was (P<0.05). The lower the concentration of LBP-SeNPs, the higher the cell proliferation rate, showing a negative growth trend (P<0.05). The group with the highest average cell proliferation rate was 0.5 μmol/L 2.0 mg/mL LBP-SeNPs (128.80%). When the 2.0 mg/mL LBP-SeNPs group was selected for cell photography, the cell density was higher at 0.5 μmol/L. With the increase of concentration, SRA01/04 cells appeared more cytoplasm dehydration, cell shrinkage and apoptotic bodies, and cell density decreased. CONCLUSION: LBP-SeNPs has moderate particle size and good stability. LBP-SeNPs can protect HLECs (SRA01/04) from UVB-induced damage, and the cell proliferation rate is further increased with increasing the amount of loaded LBP and decreasing nano-selenium concentration.

    • Characterization and validation of a chronic retinal neovascularization rabbit model by evaluating the efficacy of anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory drugs

      2022, 15(1):15-22. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.01.03

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      Abstract:AIM: To establish a rabbit model with chronic condition of retinal neovascularization (RNV) induced by intravitreal (IVT) injection of DL-2-aminoadipic acid (DL-AAA), a retinal glial (Müller) cell toxin, extensive characterization of DL-AAA induced angiographic features and the suitability of the model to evaluate anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory therapies for ocular vascular diseases. METHODS: DL-AAA (80 mmol/L) was administered IVT into both eyes of Dutch Belted rabbit. Post DL-AAA delivery, clinical ophthalmic examinations were performed weekly following modified McDonald-Shadduck Scoring System. Color fundus photography, fluorescein angiography (FA), and optical coherence tomography (OCT) procedures were performed every 2 or 4wk until stable retinal vascular leakage was observed. Once stable retinal leakage (12wk post DL-AAA administration) was established, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) (bevacizumab, ranibizumab and aflibercept) and anti-inflammatory (triamcinolone, TAA) drugs were tested for their efficacy after IVT administration. Fluorescein angiograms were scored before and after treatment following a novel grading system, developed for the DL-AAA rabbit model. RESULTS: Post DL-AAA administration, eyes were presented with moderate to severe retinal/choroidal inflammation which was accompanied by intense vitreous flare and presence of inflammatory cells in the vitreous humor. Retinal hemorrhage was restricted to the tips of neo-retinal vessels. FA revealed maximum retinal vascular leakage at 2wk after DL-AAA injection and then persisted as evidenced by stable mean FA scores in weeks 8 and 12. Retinal vascular angiographic and tomographic features were stable and consistent up to 36mo among two different staggers induced for RNV at two different occasions. Day 7, mean FA scores showed that 1 μg/eye of bevacizumab, ranibizumab, aflibercept and 2 μg/eye of TAA suppress 65%, 90%, 100% and 50% retinal vascular leakage, respectively. Day 30, bevacizumab and TAA continued to show 66% and 44% suppression while ranibizumab effect was becoming less effective (68%). In contrast, aflibercept was still able to fully (100%) suppress vascular leakage on day 30. On day 60, bevacizumab, ranibizumab and TAA showed suppression of 7%, 12%, and 9% retinal vascular leakage, respectively, however, aflibercept continued to be more effective showing 50% suppression of vascular leakage. CONCLUSION: The DL-AAA rabbit model mimics RNV angiographic features like RNV and chronic retinal leakage. Based on these features the DL-AAA rabbit model provides an invaluable tool that could be used to test the therapeutic efficacy and duration of action of novel anti-angiogenic formulations, alone or in combination with anti-inflammatory compounds.

    • Effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide on the photoinduced autophagy of retinal pigment epithelium cells

      2022, 15(1):23-30. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.01.04

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      Abstract:AIM: To investigate the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis in photoinduced injuries in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells and how Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) contributes to the increased of RPE cells to photoinduced autophagy. METHODS: In vitro cultures of human RPE strains (ARPE-19) were prepared and randomly divided into the blank control, model, low-dose LBP, middle-dose LBP, high-dose LBP, and 3-methyladenine (3MA) groups. The viability of the RPE cells and apoptosis levels in each group were tested through cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) method with a flow cytometer (Annexin V/PI double staining technique). The expression levels of LC3II, LC3I, and P62 proteins were detected with the immunofluorescence method. The expression levels of beclin1, LC3, P62, PI3K, P-mTOR, mTOR, P-Akt, and Akt proteins were tested through Western blot. RESULTS: LBP considerably strengthens cell viability and inhibits the apoptosis of RPE cells after photoinduction. The PI3K/Akt/mTOR signal pathway is activated because of the upregulation of the phosphorylation levels of Akt and mTOR proteins, and thus autophagy is inhibited. CONCLUSION: LBP can inhibit the excessive autophagy in RPE cells by activating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways and thereby protect RPE cells from photoinduced injuries.

    • Heparanase-1 is downregulated in chemoradiotherapy orbital rhabdomyosarcoma and relates with tumor growth as well as angiogenesis

      2022, 15(1):31-39. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.01.05

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      Abstract:AIM: To determine the role of heparanase-1 (HPSE-1) in orbital rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), and to investigate the feasibility of HPSE-1 targeted therapy for RMS. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was performed to analyze HPSE-1 expression in 51 cases of orbital RMS patients (including 28 cases of embryonal RMS and 23 cases of alveolar RMS), among whom there were 27 treated and 24 untreated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy. In vitro, studies were conducted to examine the effect of HPSE-1 silencing on RMS cell proliferation and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). RD cells (an RMS cell line) and HUVECs were infected with HPSE-1 shRNA lentivirus at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 10 and 30 separately. Real-time PCR and Western blot were applied to detect the mRNA and protein expression levels of HPSE-1. Cell viability of treated or control RD cells was evaluated by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. Matrigel tube formation assay was used to evaluate the effect of HPSE-1 RNAi on the tube formation of HUVECs. RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry showed that the expression rate of HPSE-1 protein was 92.9% in orbital embryonal RMS and 91.3% in orbital alveolar RMS. Tissue from alveolar orbital RMS did not show relatively stronger staining than that from the embryonal orbital RMS. However, despite the types of RMS, comparing the cases treated chemoradiotherapy with those untreated, we have observed that chemoradiotherapy resulted in weaker staining in patients’ tissues. The expression levels of HPSE-1 declined significantly in both the mRNA and protein levels in HPSE-1 shRNA transfected RD cells. The CCK-8 assay showed that lentivirus-mediated HPSE-1 silencing resulted in significantly reduced RD cells viability in vitro. Silencing HPSE-1 expression also inhibited VEGF-induced tube formation of HUVECs in Matrigel. CONCLUSION: HPSE-1 silencing may be a promising therapy for the inhibition of orbital RMS progression.

    • >Clinical Research
    • Effectiveness of oral probiotics supplementation in the treatment of adult small chalazion

      2022, 15(1):40-44. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.01.06

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      Abstract:AIM: To define the possible beneficial impact of probiotics oral supplementation on patients affected by chalazion. METHODS: Prospective comparative pilot study on 20 adults suffering from chalazion randomly divided into two groups. The first group (n=10) received conservative treatment with lid hygiene, warm compression, and dexamethasone/tobramycin ointment for at least 20d. The second group (n=10), in addition to the conservative treatment, received a mixture of probiotic microorganisms of Streptococcus thermophilus ST10 (DSM 25246), Lactococcus lactis LLC02 (DSM 29536) and Lactobacillus delbrueckii (DSM 16606) once a day up to 3mo. Chalazia were classified according to their size into three groups: small (<2 mm), medium (≥2 to <4 mm), or large (≥4 mm). When conservative treatment with and without probiotics supplementation failed to resolve the lesion, invasive methods were used, intralesional steroid injection in medium size chalazion and surgical incision and curettage for the largest ones. RESULTS: Medical treatment with or without probiotics supplementation was effective only on the small size chalazia. There was a significant difference in the time taken for complete resolution of small size chalazia between the two groups in favor of the patients receiving probiotics (38.50±9.04d vs 21.00±7.00d, P=0.039). Medium and large size chalazia did not respond to medical treatment with or without probiotics supplementation over the follow-up period (3mo). The treatment did not induce any complications in both groups and no recurrence of chalaziosis was recorded in both groups. CONCLUSION: The considerable difference in time taken for complete resolution of small chalazia between the two groups in favor of the experimental one confirms the presence of a gut-eye axis.

    • Penetrating keratoplasty in children under 3 years old with congenital corneal opacities

      2022, 15(1):45-51. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.01.07

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      Abstract:AIM: To evaluate the graft rejection and visual outcomes after penetrating keratoplasty (PK) in the presence of various congenital corneal opacities in children. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, children who underwent PK were then followed for 5y. The patient’s medical records were collected from June 2014 until June 2019 and analyzed in December 2019. All patients were children under three years old with congenital corneal opacities with or without microcornea who came to a pediatric ophthalmologist and underwent PK in Jakarta Eye Center (JEC). Beforehand, all children have participated in a thorough evaluation for PK. In the case of severe microcornea was not advised to undergo surgery. The visual outcomes and graft survival rate were described in percentages. The graft survival plot was presented with Kaplan-Meier, while the visual acuity was analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed ranks test. RESULTS: Sixteen eyes from eleven patients (seven girls and four boys) underwent PK. The graft survival rate of the first 6, 12, and 18 mo later of keratoplasty was 100%, 83.3%, and 66.7%, respectively. The overall mean survival time is 22mo (standard error 2.419), and no significant difference between the patients underwent PK before and after 36mo of their age (P=0.52). The graft failure was 50%, and post-surgery complications included cataract 43.7%, band keratopathy 12.5%, and scleromalasia 6.25%. Wilcoxon test analysis of visual acuity post keratoplasty was not statistically significant (P=0.34), while overall showed 44% improvements of visual outcome for 5y of follow-up. With a good survival at one year up to 22mo (83.3%), the visual acuity could be achieved (63%), and showed improvements (44%) during follow-up. CONCLUSION: The complications are frequent for pediatric PK. Thus, corneal surgery on infants requires careful case selection, adequate pre-operative evaluation, skilled surgery (optical correction), very close cooperation family–physician, intensive post-operation care, and amblyopia management in the future.

    • Twenty-four hours intraocular pressure in keratoconic eyes assessed by applanation tonometry and Tono-Pen AVIA

      2022, 15(1):52-58. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.01.08

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      Abstract:AIM: To assess intraocular pressure (IOP) during the daily curve of intraocular pressure (DCPo) in keratoconic eyes and compare Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT), without and with astigmatism correction (nGAT and cGAT) and Tono-Pen AVIA (TPA) assessment methods. METHODS: Thirty-nine keratoconic eyes of 24 patients were assessed. DCPo was evaluated with five IOP measurements; four were performed with a GAT (nGAT and cGAT), and a Tono-Pen AVIA (TPA) at various times throughout the day. RESULTS: Mean IOP DCPo values (mm Hg) were: nGAT, 9.9±2.6; cGAT, 11.3±2.6; TPA 12.3±3.1. Mean IOP DCPo differences (mm Hg) and Spearman’s correlation coefficients were as follows: cGATc-nGAT, 1.32±1.31, rs=0.879 (P<0.01); cGAT-TPA, -1.02±2.08, rs=0.723 (P<0.01); and nGAT-TPA, -2.35±2.23, rs=0.730 (P<0.01). Bland-Altman analysis for agreement between cGAT-TPA and nGAT-TPA mean IOP DCPo measurements revealed a mean difference of 1.02 (95%CI, 0.35-1.70) and 2.35 (95%CI, 1.62-3.07) mm Hg, respectively. Regression analysis yielded the following equation: TPA IOP=5.49+0.775×cGAT-0.015×ACD-0.299×corneal astig matism, which allowed us to infer TPA IOP values from other parameters. CONCLUSION: In keratoconic eyes, IOP peaks of DCPo measurements are identified at 6 a.m., independent of the tonometer. The mean DCPo values are: TPA>cGAT>nGAT. IOP TPA measures are predictive of cGAT values, adjusted according to anterior chamber depth and corneal astigmatism.

    • Observation seasonal variation of intraocular pressure in young healthy volunteers

      2022, 15(1):59-64. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.01.09

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      Abstract:AIM: To investigate fluctuation of intraocular pressure (IOP) and seasonal variation of 24-hour IOP during one year in healthy participants METHODS: Totally 13 young healthy volunteers participated in this study. IOP was measured with Canon TX-20 at about 8:00-9:00 a.m. from Monday to Friday every week for a whole year. They also underwent 24-hour IOP examination every three months. Blood pressure, heart rate, temperature, humidity, atmosphere pressure, sunshine duration and other environment parameters were recorded. RESULTS: The yearly fluctuation curve showed IOP in the summer months were lower than other seasons. In the multivariable generalized estimating equation analysis, IOP had a negative correlation with both temperature and sunshine duration (P<0.05). There also was a seasonal effect on 24-hour IOP. However, all intraclass correlation coefficients values of minimum, maximum and average of the 24-hour IOP and each individual IOP were less than 0.30. CONCLUSION: IOP is trend to be higher in cold days than warm days. IOP have negative association with both environmental temperature and duration of sunshine. On a season-to-season basis, 24-hour IOP is not highly reproducible in healthy volunteers.

    • Effectiveness of surgical management of malignant glaucoma in phakic eyes

      2022, 15(1):65-70. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.01.10

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      Abstract:AIM: To assess the effectiveness of core vitrectomy-phacoemulsification-intraocular lens (IOL) implantation-capsulo-hyaloidotomy in treating phakic eye at least 1mo after the onset of malignant glaucoma. METHODS: A retrospective analysis were performed on malignant glaucoma patients treated in Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center between 2016 and 2018. Demographic and clinical data were described. The preoperative and postoperative visual acuity (VA), intraocular pressure (IOP), number of IOP-lowering medications used, and anterior chamber depth (ACD) of the case series were compared by Wilcoxon signed-rank test. RESULTS: Thirteen phakic eyes with long time intervals between onset and surgery were identified in this case series. Core vitrectomy-phacoemulsification-IOL implantation-capsulo-hyaloidotomy reduced the IOP (P=0.046) and the number of IOP-lowering medications used (P=0.004), deepened the ACD (P=0.005). Complete success was achieved in 38.5% of the eyes, and anatomical success was achieved in 100% of the eyes without any recurrence. The only postoperative complication observed is corneal endothelial decompensation. It occurred in two cases. CONCLUSION: Core vitrectomy-phacoemulsification-IOL implantation-capsulo-hyaloidotomy is safe and effective for treatment of long onset phakic malignant glaucoma.

    • Impact of systemic steroids combined with immunosuppressive treatment on glaucomatous features in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

      2022, 15(1):71-76. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.01.11

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      Abstract:AIM: To evaluate the incidence of increased intraocular pressure (IOP) and glaucomatous changes in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients in comparison with systemic steroids and immunosuppressive treatment. METHODS: Sixty-two women with SLE were divided into two groups: treated (n=47, 94 eyes) and not treated (n=15, 30 eyes) with systemic glucocorticosteroids (GC; GC-free). Twenty-one individuals in GC group were treated with immunosuppressive agents (immunomodulating and biologic). The visual acuity and IOP with ocular pulsatile amplitude (OPA) measurements, as well as scanning laser polarimetry (GDx) with nerve fiber index (NFI) measurement, spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) of the optic disk with retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) analysis and the macular region with ganglion cell analysis (GCA) were performed.  RESULTS: Mean IOP values in group with combined GC and immunosuppressive therapy was 15.8±2.56 mm Hg and was significantly lower than in individuals with exclusive GC treatment (17.63±4.38 mm Hg, P=0.043). Contrary, no differences in mean IOP values between GC-free group and individuals treated with combined GC and immunosuppressive therapy were detected (P=0.563). Similarly, mean IOP in GC was 17.14±3.94 mm Hg and in GC-free patients was equal to 16.67±3.45 mm Hg (P=0.671). According to treatment regimen no statistical differences in optic disk SD-OCT for RNFL thickness, RNFL symmetry, cupping volume and the C/D ratio were observed. Similarly, no statistical differences for the mean and minimal ganglion cell layer (GCL) thickness measured in macular SD-OCT or NFI in GDx were detected. CONCLUSION: Combined immunosuppressive and systemic GC therapy in SLE patients may lower the risk of iatrogenic ocular hypertension. No relationship between treatment regimen and glaucomatous damage of optic nerve fibers in analyzed groups with SLE is detected.

    • Prevalence of focal lamina cribrosa defects in eyes with pachychoroid disease spectrum

      2022, 15(1):77-82. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.01.12

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      Abstract:AIM: To determine the prevalence of focal lamina cribrosa (LC) defect among patients with pachychoroid disease spectrum (PDS) in the absence of peripapillary retinoschisis. METHODS: This retrospective, cross-sectional study comprised of 180 patients with PDS, including polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), central serous chorioretinopathy, and pachychoroidal neovasculopathy. Medical records and optic nerve head evaluations conducted using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography with enhanced depth imaging were reviewed. As a control group, 236 patients who underwent ophthalmologic evaluation for vitreous floaters, without obvious ocular disease, were also included. RESULTS: The mean age of the PDS group, which included 118 male patients (65.6%), was 57.4±11.1y. There was no significant difference between the two groups in age (P=0.710) or sex (P=0.248). Six patients (3.3%) in the PDS group and none in the control group showed focal LC defect (P=0.318). Among the six patients with focal LC defect in the PDS group, four eyes had PCV, one eye was the fellow eye of a PCV eye, and one eye had pachychoroidal neovasculopathy. CONCLUSION: Focal LC defect can be defected in patients with PDS in the absence of peripapillary retinoschisis. However, the prevalence of focal LC defect was not different significantly between PDS patients and those who did not have PDS.

    • Corneal epithelial defects following vitreoretinal surgery: incidence and outcomes from the DISCOVER study

      2022, 15(1):83-88. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.01.13

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      Abstract:AIM: To investigate the incidence, risk factors, clinical course, and outcomes of corneal epithelial defects (CED) following vitreoretinal surgery in a prospective study setting. METHODS: This was a post-hoc analysis of all participants in DISCOVER intraoperative optical coherence tomography study. Subjects with CED 1d after surgery without intraoperative corneal debridement was defined as the postoperative CED group. Subjects who underwent intraoperative debridement were defined as intraoperative debridement group. Eyes were matched 2:1 with controls (eyes without postoperative CED) for comparative assessment. The primary outcomes were the incidence of CED on postoperative day one and the incidence of required intraoperative debridement. Secondary outcomes included time to defect closure, delayed healing (>2wk), visual acuity (VA) and presence of scarring at one year and cornea consult. RESULTS: This study included 856 eyes that underwent vitreoretinal surgery. Intraoperative corneal debridement was performed to 61 (7.1%) subjects and postoperative CED developed spontaneously in 94 (11.0%) subjects. Significant factors associated with postoperative CED included prolonged surgical duration (P=0.003), diabetes mellitus (P=0.04), postoperative ocular hypotension (P<0.001). Prolonged surgical duration was associated with intraoperative debridement. Delayed defect closure time (>2wk) was associated with corneal scar formation at the end of the 1y in all epithelial defect subjects (P<0.001). The overall rate of corneal scarring for all eyes undergoing vitrectomy was 1.8%. CONCLUSION: Prolonged duration of surgery is the strongest factor associated with both intraoperative debridement and spontaneous postoperative CED. Delayed defect closure is associated with a greater risk of corneal scarring at one year. The overall rate of corneal scarring following vitrectomy is low at <2%.

    • Vitreous microparticles contain apoptotic signals suggesting a diabetic vitreopathy

      2022, 15(1):89-97. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.01.14

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      Abstract:AIM: To evaluate differences in microparticle profiles in vitreous samples between diabetic and non-diabetic eyes undergoing vitrectomy. METHODS: Un-masked cross-sectional series of 34 eyes undergoing vitrectomy. Vitreous specimens were collected and processed to evaluate for membrane integrity (DAPI), apoptosis (Annexin-V), and endothelial-cell origin (V-Cadherin). A BD LSR II flow cytometer was used for analysis and standardized sub-micron-sized beads were used for size comparison. RESULTS: Thirty-four specimens underwent analysis. Greater levels of Annexin-V were found on microparticles from specimens in which blood had entered the vitreous (n=12) compared to those without blood (n=22; 52.3%±30.7% vs 19.6%±27.2%, P=0.002). Patients with diabetes having surgery with hemorrhage (n=7) had greater expression of Annexin-V than those without hemorrhage (n=8; 62.1%±31.7% vs 18.9%±20.9%, P=0.009). However, in patients with non-diabetic vitreous hemorrhage, the level of Annexin-V expression was not significantly different compared to other disease processes (38.6%±25.7%, n=5 vs 20.0%±30.9%, n=14, P=0.087). CONCLUSION: Increased expression of the apoptotic marker, Annexin-V is detected on vitreous microparticles in diabetes-related vitreous hemorrhage. When evaluating vitreous hemorrhage in patients without diabetes, the apoptotic signal is not significantly different. Vitrectomy in patients with diabetes, and improvement in visual outcomes, may be related to the removal of a serum-derived, pro-apoptotic vitreous. Further investigation is warranted in order to identify the molecular characteristics of microparticles that regulate disease.

    • Characteristics of macular microvasculature before and after idiopathic macular hole surgery

      2022, 15(1):98-105. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.01.15

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      Abstract:AIM: To evaluate the macular microvasculature before and after surgery for idiopathic macular hole (MH) and the association of preoperative vascular parameters with postoperative recovery of visual acuity and configuration. METHODS: Twenty eyes from 20 patients with idiopathic MH were enrolled. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) images were obtained before, 2wk, 1, and 3mo after vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling. Preoperative foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area and perimeter and regional vessel density (VD) in both layers were compared according to the 3-month best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). RESULTS: The BCVA improved from 0.98±0.59 (logMAR, Snellen 20/200) preoperatively to 0.30±0.25 (Snellen 20/40) at 3mo postoperatively. The preoperative deep VD was smaller and the FAZ perimeter was larger in the 3-month BCVA<20/32 group (all P<0.05). A significant reduction was observed in FAZ parameters and all VDs 2wk postoperatively. Except for deep perifoveal VD, all VDs recovered only to their preoperative values. The postoperative FAZ parameters were lower during follow-up. Decreases in preoperative deep VDs were correlated with worse postoperative BCVA (Pearson’s r=-0.667 and -0.619, respectively). A larger FAZ perimeter (Spearman’s r=-0.524) and a lower deep perifoveal VD preoperatively (Pearson’s r=0.486) were associated with lower healing stage. CONCLUSION: The status of the deep vasculature may be an indicator of visual acuity in patients with a closed MH. Except for the deep perifoveal region, VD recovers only to preoperative levels.

    • Foveal structure changes in infants treated with anti-VEGF therapy or laser therapy guided by optical coherence tomography angiography for retinopathy of prematurity

      2022, 15(1):106-112. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.01.16

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      Abstract:AIM: To evaluate foveal vessel density (VD) and foveal thickness using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) children treated with laser photocoagulation or anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injection. Additionally, we assessed the relationship between foveal microvascular anomalies and different therapies in ROP children. METHODS: This was a single-center, retrospective study of patients with a diagnosis of type 1 ROP. Twenty-three eyes (14 patients) treated with anti-VEGF injection and twenty-nine eyes (17 patients) treated with laser coagulation were included in this study. The foveal VD, inner thickness and full thickness were measured at the central 0°, 2° to 8°, and 8° of the retina (centered on the fovea) using OCTA and cross-sectional OCT, respectively. RESULTS: Foveal VD, inner thickness and full thickness were significantly smaller within the central 8° of the retina in ROP children treated with anti-VEGF injection than in those treated with laser photocoagulation (P=0.013, 0.009, 0.036, respectively). The full thickness was also smaller in the anti-VEGF group than in the laser group at the central 0° of the retina (P=0.010). The grade of foveal hypoplasia is lower in the anti-VEGF group than in the laser group (P=0.045). Multivariable analysis did not find any risk factors associated with visual acuity in our study. CONCLUSION: In children with type 1 ROP, the better structural development of fovea in those who were treated with anti-VEGF injection compared with laser photocoagulation are identified. However, visual acuity outcomes are similar 70mo after the treatments.

    • Efficacy of long-term orthokeratology treatment in children with anisometropic myopia

      2022, 15(1):113-118. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.01.17

      Abstract (835) HTML (0) PDF 437.65 K (312) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To explore the efficacy of the orthokeratology lens for anisometropic myopia progression. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed. Cycloplegic refraction and axial length (AL) were collected from 50 children (10.52±1.72y) who visited Peking University Third Hospital from July 2015 to August 2020. These children’s one eyes (Group A) received monocular orthokeratology lenses at first, after different durations (12.20±6.94mo), their contralateral eyes (Group B) developed myopia and receive orthokeratology as well. The data in 1-year of binocular period were recorded. AL growth rate (difference of follow-up and baseline per month) were compared between two groups by paired t test. Interocular differences of AL were compared by Wilcoxon test. RESULTS: During monocular period, the AL growth rate of the Group A (0.008±0.022 mm/mo) was significantly slower than that of the Group B (0.038±0.018 mm/mo; P<0.0001). However, during binocular period, the AL growth rate of the Group A (0.026±0.014 mm/mo) was significantly faster than that of the Group B (0.016±0.015 mm/mo; P<0.0001). The AL difference between both eyes was 0.6 (0.46) mm, then significantly decreased to 0.22 (0.39) mm when started binocular treatment (P<0.0001). However, it was significantly increased to 0.30 (0.32) mm after a year (P<0.0001), but still significantly lower than baseline (P<0.0001). CONCLUSION: The orthokeratology lens is efficient for control the AL elongation of monocular myopia eyes and reduce anisometropia. For the condition that the contralateral eyes develop myopia and receive orthokeratology lens later, there is no efficiency observed on control interocular difference of AL during binocular treatment.

    • Ophthalmic manifestations of Cryptococcus gattii species complex: a case series and review of the literature

      2022, 15(1):119-127. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.01.18

      Abstract (659) HTML (0) PDF 1.21 M (308) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To report 4 cases of Cryptococcus gattii (C. gattii) species complex infection with diverse ophthalmic manifestations, and to review the literature to examine pathobiology of disease, classical ophthalmic presentations and outcomes, and treatment modalities for this emerging pathogen. METHODS: Cases of C. gattii meningoencephalitis with ophthalmic manifestations were identified via chart review at two institutions in Australia and one institution in the mid-west region of the United States and are reported as a case series. Additionally, a MEDLINE literature review was conducted to identify all reported cases of C. gattii with ophthalmic manifestations from 1990-2020. Cases were reviewed and tabulated, together with our series of patients, in this report. RESULTS: Four cases of C. gattii with ophthalmic manifestations are presented; three from Australia and one from the USA. A literature review identified a total of 331 cases of C. gattii with visual sequelae. The majority of cases occurred in immunocompetent individuals. Blurred vision and diplopia were the most common presenting symptoms, with papilloedema the most common sign, reported in 10%-50% of cases. Visual loss was reported in 10%-53% of cases, as compared to rates of visual loss of 1%-9% in C. neoformans infection. Elevated intracranial pressure, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fungal burden, and abnormal neurological exam at presentation correlated with poor visual outcomes. The mainstays of treatment are anti-fungal agents and aggressive management of intracranial hypertension with serial lumbar punctures. CSF diversion procedures should be considered for refractory cases. Acetazolamide and mannitol are associated with high complication rates, and adjuvant corticosteroids have demonstrated higher mortality rates; these treatments should be avoided. CONCLUSION: Permanent visual loss represents a devastating yet potentially preventable sequelae of C. gattii infection. Intracranial hypertension needs to be recognised early and aggressively managed. Referral to an ophthalmologist/neuro-ophthalmologist in all cases of cryptococcal infection independent of visual symptoms at time of diagnosis is recommended.

    • >Investigation
    • Infectious keratitis in Vietnam: etiology, organisms, and management at Vietnam National Eye Hospital

      2022, 15(1):128-134. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.01.19

      Abstract (578) HTML (0) PDF 425.82 K (268) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To report the etiologies, risk factors, treatments, and outcomes of infectious keratitis (IK) at a major Vietnamese eye hospital. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of all cases of IK at Vietnam National Eye Hospital (VNEH) in Hanoi, Vietnam. Medical histories, demographics, clinical features, microbiological results, and treatment outcomes were reviewed. RESULTS: IK was diagnosed in 1974 eyes of 1952 patients, with ocular trauma being the greatest risk factor for IK (34.2%), frequently resulting from an agriculture-related injury (53.3%). The mean duration between symptom onset and presentation to VNEH was 19.3±14.4d, and 98.7% of patients had been treated with topical antibiotic and/or antifungal agents prior to evaluation at VNEH. Based on smear results of 1706 samples, the most common organisms identified were bacteria (n=1107, 64.9%) and fungi (n=1092, 64.0%), with identification of both bacteria and fungi in 614 (36.0%) eyes. Fifty-five of 374 bacterial cultures (14.7%) and 426 of 838 fungal cultures (50.8%) were positive, with the most commonly cultured pathogens being Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumonia, Fusarium spp., and Aspergillus spp. Corneal perforation and descemetocele developed in 391 (19.8%) and 93 (4.7%) eyes, respectively. Medical treatment was successful in resolving IK in 50.4% eyes, while 337 (17.1%) eyes underwent penetrating or anterior lamellar keratoplasty. Evisceration was performed in 7.1% of eyes, most commonly in the setting of fungal keratitis. CONCLUSION: Ocular trauma is a major risk factor for IK in Vietnam, which is diagnosed in almost 400 patients each year at VNEH. Given this, and as approximately one quarter of the eyes that develop IK require corneal transplantation or evisceration, greater emphasis should be placed on the development of prevention and treatment programs for IK in Vietnam.

    • Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and retinal vascular caliber alterations in coal miners in northern China: a community-based observational study

      2022, 15(1):135-140. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.01.20

      Abstract (636) HTML (0) PDF 353.52 K (273) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To evaluate retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and retinal vascular caliber alterations in coal mine workers. METHODS: The community-based observational cross-sectional study included 4004 participants of a sub-population of the Kailuan Study. All the study participants underwent structured interviews with a standardized questionnaire, fundus photography and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) examinations performed by trained doctors. RESULTS: The retinal nerve fiber layer thickness was significantly higher (P=0.006) and the central macular thickness was lower in coal miners (n=659, 51.0±7.8y) as compared to the control (working above the ground; n=477, 51.8±7.5y; P=0.032). Additionally, the downhole workers showed a significantly thicker retinal artery (P=0.012) and vein diameters (P<0.001). In multivariable regression, a thicker retinal nerve fiber layer was associated with a higher cumulative silica dust exposure (P=0.005) after adjusting for younger age and larger spherical equivalent. In a reverse pattern, a higher cumulative silica dust exposure (P=0.004) was significantly associated with a thicker retinal nerve fiber layer after adjusting for age, high-density lipoproteins and uric acid. Wider retinal vein diameters were associated with higher cumulative silica dust exposure (P=0.036) after adjusting for younger age and larger spherical equivalent. CONCLUSION: The retinal vessels diameters and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness are significantly thicker in long term of coal mining. The results of our study indicate that underground working environment may lead to retinal vessel dilation and inflammation. Thus, ocular examination might be needed within coal miners in order to monitor the occupational eye health as well as the incidence and progression of eye diseases.

    • >Meta-Analysis
    • Prevalence of cataract and cataract surgery in urban and rural Chinese populations over 50 years old: a systematic review and Meta-analysis

      2022, 15(1):141-149. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.01.21

      Abstract (1045) HTML (0) PDF 965.98 K (393) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To summarize the data of epidemiological studies on cataract prevalence over 50 years old in urban and rural areas of China from 2000 to 2020, and to analyze the prevalence of cataract and operation rate in China. METHODS: By searching PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Wanfang Data and CNKI, Chinese and English literatures on the prevalence of cataract in China were retrieved, and the relevant characteristic data were extracted. Then, Stata v15SE software was used for Meta-analysis and heterogeneity test. According to the results of heterogeneity, the corresponding effect models were selected to combine the extracted data. RESULTS: A total of 20 studies were included in this study, with a total of 111 434 cases. Meta-analysis showed heterogeneity. According to the random effect model, the overall prevalence of cataract in Chinese people over 50 years old was 27.45%, that in rural was 28.79%, and that in urban was 26.66%. The overall coverage rate of cataract surgery was 9.19%. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of cataract is high in China, and there is still room for improvement in surgical coverage, so it is very important to promote cataract screening and prevention.

    • >Bibliometric Research
    • The 100 most influential articles in myopia: a bibliometric analysis

      2022, 15(1):150-156. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.01.22

      Abstract (1055) HTML (0) PDF 712.17 K (376) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To identify and characterize the 100 most influential articles in the field of myopia over the last decades. METHODS: Articles on myopia published between January 1975 and March 2020 were searched through the Web of Science Core Collection database. Two independent authors reviewed and determined the 100 most cited articles. The characteristics of each eligible article were recorded, including authors, institutions, countries, journals, publication date, total citations (TCs), annual citations (ACs), research focus and article type. RESULTS: The top 100 most influential articles were published between 1983 and 2016, with 1999 as the most prolific year. The mean number of TCs was 288 (range: 193-537) and the mean number of ACs was 19 (range: 7-109). Treatment and epidemiology of myopia were the most important research focus. These articles were published in 21 journals led by Ophthalmology (29%) followed by Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science (23%). The number of ACs for articles published in the last ten years was significantly higher than that for the other most-cited articles (44 vs 16, Mann-Whitney U test P<0.01). There is no difference in the number of TCs between original articles and review articles, while the number of ACs for review articles was significantly higher than that for original articles (22 vs 17, Mann-Whitney U test P<0.05). CONCLUSION: This bibliometric analysis can provide us with concise information about the development trend of research in the field of myopia in the past few decades, and provide an important reference for researchers to guide future research.

    • >Review Article
    • Progress of clinical therapies for dry age-related macular degeneration

      2022, 15(1):157-166. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.01.23

      Abstract (1368) HTML (0) PDF 379.42 K (443) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a progressive blinding disease that currently affects millions of people worldwide with no successful treatment available. Significant research efforts are currently underway to develop therapies aimed at slowing the progression of this disease or, more notably, reversing it. Here the therapies which have reached clinical trial for treatment of dry AMD were reviewed. A thorough search of PubMed, Embase, and Clinicaltrials.gov has led to a comprehensive collection of the most recent strategies being evaluated. This review also endeavors to assess the status and future directions of therapeutics for this debilitating condition.

    • >Letter to the Editor
    • A novel surgical technique to prevent post-enucleation conjunctival cyst: conjunctival staining with methylthioninium

      2022, 15(1):167-168. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.01.24

      Abstract (577) HTML (0) PDF 585.49 K (294) Comment (0) Favorites


    • A case of paracentral acute middle maculopathy after small incision lenticule extraction surgery

      2022, 15(1):169-171. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.01.25

      Abstract (611) HTML (0) PDF 1.24 M (286) Comment (0) Favorites


    • Laser speckle flowgraphy findings in a patient with radiation retinopathy

      2022, 15(1):172-174. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.01.26

      Abstract (540) HTML (0) PDF 996.20 K (312) Comment (0) Favorites


    • Klebsiella pneumoniae endogenous endophthalmitis secondary to liver abscess syndrome

      2022, 15(1):175-177. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.01.27

      Abstract (455) HTML (0) PDF 764.89 K (268) Comment (0) Favorites


    • >Comment
    • Comment on: Trends in research related to high myopia from 2010 to 2019: a bibliometric and knowledge mapping analysis

      2022, 15(1):178-179. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.01.28

      Abstract (709) HTML (0) PDF 256.56 K (324) Comment (0) Favorites


Editors-in-Chief: Yan-Nian Hui and Peter Wiedemann

Established in April, 2008

ISSN 2222-3959 print

ISSN 2227-4898 online

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