• Volume 16,Issue 6,2023 Table of Contents
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    • >Editorial
    • How internal limiting membrane peeling revolutionized macular surgery in the last three decades

      2023, 16(6):837-840. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2023.06.01

      Abstract (1223) HTML (0) PDF 284.04 K (187) Comment (0) Favorites


    • >Basic Research
    • Preliminary proteomic analysis of human tears in lacrimal adenoid cystic carcinoma and pleomorphic adenoma

      2023, 16(6):841-848. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2023.06.02

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      Abstract:AIM: To detect proteomic differences in tears between adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) and pleomorphic adenoma (PA). METHODS: Tear samples were collected from 4 patients with ACC, 5 with PA, and 4 control cases. Label-free analysis and parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) were used to screen and validate the tear proteome. Gene Ontology (GO) annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) were conducted for bioinformatics analysis. RESULTS: In total, 1059 proteins in tear samples were identified by label-free analysis. Between ACC and PA, 415 differentially expressed proteins were detected. Based on the GO annotation, enzyme regulator activity and serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity in the molecular function category, blood microparticle and extracellular matrix in the cellular component category, and response to nutrient levels in the biological process category were most predominant. By KEGG pathway annotation, the different proteins between ACC and PA mainly participated in complement and coagulation cascades, amoebiasis, African trypanosomiasis and cholesterol metabolism. Eight proteins with mostly significant differences were verified by PRM, and five proteins with more than 10-fold increases in ACC compared with PA, including integrin β, α-2-macroglobulin, epididymal secretory sperm binding protein Li 78p, RAB5C, and complement C5, were identified. CONCLUSION: The combined tools of label-free analysis and PRM are very effective and efficient, especially for samples such as tears. Some proteomic differences in tears between ACC and PA are identified and these protein candidates may be specific biomarkers for future exploration.

    • All-trans retinoic acid regulates the expression of MMP-2 and TGF-β2 via RDH5 in retinal pigment epithelium cells

      2023, 16(6):849-854. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2023.06.03

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      Abstract:AIM: To investigate the effect of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on retinol dehydrogenase 5 (RDH5), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2) transcription levels, and the effect of RDH5 on MMP-2 and TGF-β2 in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. METHODS: After adult RPE cell line-19 (ARPE-19 cells) intervened with gradient concentrations of ATRA (0-20 μmol/L) for 24h, flow cytometry was used to detect the proliferation and apoptosis of cells in each group, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to detect RDH5, MMP-2 and TGF-β2 mRNA expression. Then, after ARPE-19 cells transfected with three different siRNA targets for 48h, the RDH5 knockdown efficiency of each group and expression of MMP-2 and TGF-β2 mRNA within them was detected by qRT-PCR. RESULTS: Flow cytometry results showed that ATRA could inhibit the proliferation of RPE cells and promote the apoptosis of RPE cells, and the difference of apoptosis was statistically significant when the ATRA concentration exceeded 5 μmol/L and compared with the normal control group (P=0.027 and P=0.031, respectively). qRT-PCR results showed that ATRA could significantly inhibit the expression level of RDH5 mRNA (P<0.001) and promote the expression of MMP-2 and TGF-β2 mRNA (P=0.03 and P<0.001, respectively) in a dose-dependent manner, especially when treated with 5 μmol/L ATRA. The knockdown efficiency of RDH5 siRNA varies with different targets, among which RDH5 siRNA-435 had the highest knockdown efficiency, i.e., more than 50% lower than that of the negative control group (P=0.02). When RDH5 was knocked down for 48h, the results of qRT-PCR showed that the expressions of MMP-2 and TGF-β2 mRNA were significantly up-regulated (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: ATRA inhibits the expression of RDH5 and promotes MMP-2 and TGF-β2, and further RDH5 knockdown significantly upregulates MMP-2 and TGF-β2. These findings suggest that RDH5 may be involved in an epithelial-mesenchymal transition of RPE cells mediated by ATRA.

    • Beneficial effects of protocatechuic acid on diabetic retinopathy in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats

      2023, 16(6):855-862. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2023.06.04

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      Abstract:AIM: To determine the effects of protocatechuic acid (PCA) on streptozocin-induced diabetic retinopathy (DR) in rats. METHODS: Wistar rats were given a 50 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection of streptozocin to induce diabetes. Animals were assigned randomly one of four groups (8 rats per group): control, diabetic, diabetic plus PCA (25 mg/kg•d), and diabetic plus PCA (50 mg/kg•d). After inducing diabetes, treatments were started one week later and continued for eight weeks. After the experiment, the rats were sacrificed, and their retinas were taken for biochemical and molecular analysis. RESULTS: PCA administration diminished the blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin levels relative to the diabetic group. In diabetic rats, PCA lowered elevated levels of advanced glycosylated end products (AGEs) and receptor for AGEs (RAGE). In the retina of diabetic rats, PCA effectively decreased inflammatory cytokine, nuclear factor-κB, tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and vascular endothelial growth factor, and increased antioxidant markers glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. CONCLUSION: The protective benefits of PCA against DR may be attributable to its suppression of the AGEs and RAGE and its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

    • >Clinical Research
    • Assessment of the effects of intrastromal injection of adipose-derived stem cells in keratoconus patients

      2023, 16(6):863-870. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2023.06.05

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      Abstract:AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intrastromal transplantation of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) in keratoconus patients. METHODS: This study was conducted on 8 eyes of 8 patients with moderate to severe keratoconus. In the patients, ophthalmic assessments including visual acuity, refraction, slit lamp examination, fundoscopy, corneal topography, and confocal microscopy were performed. Autologous stem cells were used. The isolated stem cells were injected into the corneal stroma by using femtosecond laser. Surgical procedure was similar to intracorneal ring implantation. All patients were re-assessed 1, 3, and 6mo after surgery. RESULTS: The baseline mean visual acuity was 0.48±0.18 and improved to 0.66±0.17 after surgery and final acuity increased by 1.85±0.80 lines (P=0.001). The mean spherical refraction of patients improved 0.34±0.35 D (P=0.039), and the mean cylindrical refraction of patients improved 0.84±0.23 D (P=0.016). The mean flat keratometry decreased 0.78±0.71 D (P=0.017), and the mean steep keratometry decreased 0.59±0.68 D (P=0.023). The mean central corneal thickness of patients improved of 6.29±4.47 μm (P=0.03). The mean keratocyte density at the anterior and middle stroma of cornea increased (P<0.05) but remained stable at the posterior stroma after 6mo. All patients had no complications and their corneas remained transparent. CONCLUSION: Intrastromal transplantation of ASCs has positive effects on vision and refractive parameters in most patients with keratoconus. After six months, visual acuity improved moderately, corneal parameters reduced slightly, and stromal keratocytes density increased. This modality is safe, and patients do not have any complications.

    • Subconjunctival conbercept for the treatment of corneal neovascularization

      2023, 16(6):871-875. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2023.06.06

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      Abstract:AIM: To investigate the effectiveness and safety of subconjunctival injection of conbercept in the treatment of corneal neovascularization (CNV). METHODS: The data on 10 consecutively recruited patients with CNV who received a subconjunctival conbercept (1 mg) once, and measured the area, length, and diameter of neovascularization before and after (1d, 1, 2wk, and 1mo) treatment as well as the occurrence of systemic and ocular complications after treatment were analyzed. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant reduction in the area of CNV one day after treatment (mean±SD: 38.46±11.36 mm2), compared with before treatment (42.46±12.80 mm2, P<0.01). There was also a statistically significant reduction in the length (3.86±1.80 mm vs 4.64±1.77 mm, P<0.01) and diameter (0.044±0.022 vs 0.060±0.026, P<0.05) of CNV, one week after treatment comparing to before treatment. The reduction in all three parameters was maximized at two weeks after treatment (area: 29.49±8.83 mm2, P<0.001; length: 3.50±1.88 mm, P<0.001; and diameter: 0.038±0.017 mm, P<0.01). No severe systemic or ocular complication was observed during the study. CONCLUSION: During the observation period of one-month, subconjunctival injection of conbercept is an effective and safe method for the reduction of CNV. It may be effective as a preoperative drug for neovascular corneal transplantation.

    • Different serum levels of IgG and complements and recurrence rates in IgG4-positive and negative lacrimal gland benign lymphoepithelial lesion

      2023, 16(6):876-883. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2023.06.07

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      Abstract:AIM: To analyze the differences in immune indicators and prognosis between IgG4-positive and negative lacrimal gland benign lymphoepithelial lesion (LGBLEL). METHODS: This was a single-center retrospective clinical study including 105 cases of IgG4-positive LGBLEL and 41 cases of IgG4-negative LGBLEL. Basic information, related indicators of peripheral venous blood samples using immunoscattering turbidimetry, treatment (partial surgical excision and glucocorticoid therapy) and prognosis (recurrence and death) were collected. Survival curves for recurrence were created using the Kaplan-Meier analysis. Univariate analysis and multivariate regression analysis were used to analyze prognostic factors. RESULTS: The mean age was 50.10±14.23y and 44.76±11.43y (P=0.033) in IgG4-positive and negative group respectively. The serum C3 and C4 was lower in IgG4-positive group (P=0.005, P=0.002), while the serum IgG and IgG2 was higher in IgG4-positive group (P=0.000 and P=0.008). Twenty-one cases had recurrence in IgG4-positive group and 3 cases recurrence in IgG4-negative group. The 5-year recurrence-free cumulative percentages of IgG4-positive group was 81.85%, and 83.46% in the IgG-negative group (P=0.216). The history of preoperative glucocorticoid therapy, serum C4, IgG1 and IgG2 were the factors affecting recurrence in IgG4-positive group, while serum C4, and IgG1 were the factors affecting recurrence of LGBLEL. CONCLUSION: Serum C4 and IgG1 are the factors affecting recurrence of LGBLEL, while the IgG4 does not affect recurrence of LGBLEL.

    • Evaluation of optic nerve head vessels density changes after phacoemulsification cataract surgery using optical coherence tomography angiography

      2023, 16(6):884-890. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2023.06.08

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      Abstract:AIM: To evaluate optic nerve head (ONH) vessel density (VD) changes after cataract surgery using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). METHODS: This was a prospective observational study. Thirty-four eyes with mild/moderate cataracts were included. ONH scans were obtained before and 3mo after cataract surgery using OCTA. Radial peripapillary capillary (RPC) density, all VD, large VD and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) in total disc, inside disc, and different peripapillary sectors were assessed and analyzed. Image quality score (QS), fundus photography grading and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were also collected, and correlation analyses were performed between VD change and these parameters. RESULTS: Compared with baseline, both RPC and all VD increased in inside disc area 3mo postoperatively (from 47.5%±5.3% to 50.2%±3.7%, and from 57.87%±4.30% to 60.47%±3.10%, all P<0.001), but no differences were observed in peripapillary area. However, large VD increased from 5.63%±0.77% to 6.47%±0.72% in peripapillary ONH region (P<0.001). RPC decreased in inferior and superior peripapillary ONH parts (P=0.019, <0.001 respectively). There were obvious negative correlations between RPC change and large VD change in inside disc, superior-hemi, and inferior-hemi (r=-0.419, -0.370, and -0.439, P=0.017, 0.044, and 0.015, respectively). No correlations were found between VD change and other parameters including QS change, fundus photography grading, postoperative BCVA, and postoperative peripapillary RNFLT. CONCLUSION: RPC density and all VD in the inside disc ONH region increase 3mo after surgery in patients with mild to moderate cataract. No obvious VD changes are found in peripapillary area postoperatively.

    • Stability of neodymium:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy in eyes with capsular tension rings

      2023, 16(6):891-896. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2023.06.09

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      Abstract:AIM: To evaluate the stability of neodymium (Nd):YAG laser posterior capsulotomy in eyes with capsular tension rings (CTRs). METHODS: A total of 60 eyes that underwent cataract surgery and laser posterior capsulotomy postoperatively were included in this retrospective cohort study. To evaluate the safety and stability of capsulotomy, changes in the size of posterior capsulotomy and anterior chamber depth (ACD) in three groups: the group without CTR, the group with 12 mm CTRs, and the group with 13 mm CTRs, at 1wk, 3, 12, and 15mo after capsulotomy, were compared. RESULTS: In the group without CTR and the group with 12 mm CTR, there was no significant change in ACD at every post-laser follow-up. In the group with 13 mm CTR, the ACD change was significant until 3mo after capsulotomy. In all groups, there was a significant increase in the area of capsulotomy between 1wk and 3mo post-laser. Between 3 and 12mo post-laser, only the group with 13 mm CTR showed a significant increase in the area of capsulotomy (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Laser posterior capsulotomy is safe in all three groups. The capsulotomy and ACD become stabilized and have not shown significant changes since 1y post-laser, even with larger CTRs. The maintenance of centrifugal capsular tension can last longer with larger CTRs, and the stability of the capsulotomy site can be reached about 12mo after capsulotomy in pseudophakic eyes with larger CTRs.

    • Comparison of the efficacy and safety of ultrasonic cycloplasty vs valve implantation and anti-VEGF for the treatment of fundus disease-related neovascular glaucoma

      2023, 16(6):897-903. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2023.06.10

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      Abstract:AIM: To compare the clinical efficacy and safety of ultrasonic cycloplasty (UCP) vs Ahmed glaucoma drainage valve implantation (ADV) in addition to intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) for treatment of fundus disease-related neovascular glaucoma (NVG). METHODS: A total of 43 patients (45 eyes) with NVG secondary to fundus diseases underwent anti-VEGF combined with UCP or ADV from August 2020 to March 2022 were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study. Of them, 14 patients (15 eyes) were treated with both UCP and anti-VEGF as the UCP group and 29 patients (30 eyes) treated with both ADV and anti-VEGF as the ADV group. The success of the treatment was defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) between 11-20 mm Hg with or without using IOP-lowering drugs. IOP measurement, IOP lowering drugs at baseline and follow-ups period and complications were recorded. RESULTS: The average age was 63.03±9.95 and 52.27±12.89y in ADV and UCP groups, respectively (P=1.947). The fundus pathology included proliferative diabetic retinopathy in 42 eyes and retinal vein occlusion in 3 eyes. All eyes in both groups achieved successful treatment at 3mo. While the success rate was 90.0% (27/30) in the ADV group and 86.7% (13/15) in the UCP group at the last follow-up of 6mo (P>0.05). IOP was significantly lower with reduction of drug use than the baseline in both groups (both P<0.05). And the ADV group needed fewer anti-glaucoma drops than the UCP group from 1d to 3mo. The comfort scores of patients in the ADV group were significantly lower than those in the UCP group in the first week after the operation (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: UCP is an alternative to the ADV with the same efficacy but non-invasive for the treatment of NVG.

    • Efficacy of ripasudil in reducing intraocular pressure and medication score for ocular hypertension with inflammation and corticosteroid

      2023, 16(6):904-908. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2023.06.11

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      Abstract:AIM: To investigate the efficacy of ripasudil, a Rho kinase inhibitor, in reducing intraocular pressure (IOP) and medication scores of anti-glaucoma drugs in patients with ocular hypertension with inflammation and corticosteroid. METHODS: The study included 11 patients diagnosed with ocular hypertension with inflammation and corticosteroid, all of whom were prescribed ripasudil eye drops and followed up for at least 2y after the initiation of treatment. IOP was measured using a non-contact tonometer before enrollment and at each follow-up visit. The medication score of glaucoma eye drops was calculated for each patient. RESULTS: The mean IOP (26.4±2.9 mm Hg before treatment) significantly decreased after ripasudil therapy (13.7±3.3 mm Hg at 3mo) and remained stable in the low-teens during the 2-year follow-up period (P<0.0001). A significant decrease in the medication score was observed at 12mo or later after the initiation of ripasudil therapy (P<0.05). Both baseline medication scores and glaucomatous optic disc change rates were significantly higher in the five eyes that required glaucoma surgery during the 2-year observation period than the 10 eyes that did not require surgery. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate the efficacy of ripasudil, in reducing IOP and the medication score over a 2-year treatment period in patients with ocular hypertension with inflammation and corticosteroid. Our findings also suggest that ripasudil could reduce the IOP in uveitic glaucoma patients with both lower baseline medication score and lower glaucomatous optic disc change rate.

    • Volumetric fluid analysis of fixed monthly anti-VEGF treatment in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration

      2023, 16(6):909-914. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2023.06.12

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      Abstract:AIM: To evaluate visual outcomes and changes in fluid after administering monthly anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections to treat neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) with subretinal fluid (SRF) and pigment epithelial detachment (PED). METHODS: This prospective study included eyes with nAMD previously treated with as-needed anti-VEGF injections. The patients were treated with six monthly intravitreal injections of ranibizumab. Quantitative volumetric segmentation analyses of the SRF and PED were performed. The main outcome measures included best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and SRF and PED volumes. RESULTS: Twenty eyes of 20 patients were included in this study. At the 6-month follow-up, BCVA and PED volume did not change significantly (P=0.110 and 0.999, respectively) but the mean SRF volume decreased from 0.53±0.82 mm3 at baseline to 0.08±0.23 mm3 (P=0.002). The absorption rate of the SRF volume was negatively correlated with the duration of previous anti-VEGF treatment (P=0.029). Seven of the 20 eyes (35%) showed a fluid-free macula and significant improvement in BCVA (P=0.036) by month 6. CONCLUSION: Quantifying the SRF can precisely determine the patient’s responsiveness to anti-VEGF treatment of nAMD.

    • Time in range as a useful marker for evaluating retinal functional changes in diabetic retinopathy patients

      2023, 16(6):915-920. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2023.06.13

      Abstract (231) HTML (0) PDF 655.48 K (194) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To elucidate the relationship between macular sensitivity and time in range (TIR) obtained from continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) measures in diabetic patients with or without diabetic retinopathy (DR). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study including 100 eyes of non-DR patients and 60 eyes of DR patients. An advanced microperimetry was used to quantitate the retinal mean sensitivity (MS) and fixation stability in central macula. TIR of 3.9-10.0 mmol/L was evaluated with CGM. Pearson coefficient analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were used to assess the correlation between TIR and retinal sensitivity. RESULTS: In a comparison of non-DR patients, significant differences (P<0.05) were found in HbA1c, TIR, coefficient of variation (CV), standard deviation of blood glucose (SDBG) and mean amplitude of glucose excursion (MAGE) values in DR patients. Besides, those DR patients had significantly poor best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, logMAR, P=0.001). In terms of microperimetry parameters, retinal mean sensitivity (MS) and the percentages of fixation points located within 2° and 4° diameter circles were significantly decreased in the DR group (P<0.001, P<0.001, P=0.02, respectively). The bivariate contour ellipse area (BCEA) encompassing 68.2%, 95.4%, 99.6% of fixation points were all significantly increased in the DR group (P=0.01, P=0.006, P=0.01, respectively). Correlation analysis showed that MS were significantly correlated with HbA1c (P=0.01). TIR was positively correlated with MS (r=0.23, P=0.01). SDBG was negatively correlated with MS (r=-0.24, P=0.01) but there was no correlation between CV and MAGE with MS (P>0.05). A multivariable linear regression analysis was performed to prove that TIR and SDBG were both independent risk factors for MS reduction in the DR group. CONCLUSION: TIR is correlated with retinal MS reduction in DR patients, suggesting a useful option for evaluating DR progression.

    • Efficacy and safety of subthreshold micropulse laser in the treatment of acute central serous chorioretinopathy

      2023, 16(6):921-927. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2023.06.14

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      Abstract:AIM: To analyze the efficacy and safety of subthreshold micropulse laser (SML) in the treatment of acute central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). METHODS: This is a retrospective case analysis study. Totally 58 eyes of 58 patients were enrolled, and they were divided into different groups. And 39 patients were treated with SML (SML group) and 19 patients were only observed (observation group). The follow-up period was 3mo after diagnosis. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central retinal thickness (CRT), superficial retinal vascular density (SRVD), deep retinal vascular density (DRVD), the superficial and deep foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area, retinal light sensitivity (RLS), perfusion area of choroidal capillary layer (CCL), subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) and fundus autofluorescence (FAF) were investigated. RESULTS: The BCVA, CRT, SRVD, DRVD, the superficial and deep FAZ area, RLS, SFCT of SML group were significantly improved at 3mo (all P<0.05). In the observation group, only CRT, DRVD and SFCT were improved (all P<0.05). Other research items in the observation group were not significantly different from baseline (all P>0.05). At the last follow-up, the BCVA and RLS in the SML group were better than those in the observation group, and CRT was lower, SRVD and DRVD, perfusion area of CCL were larger (all P<0.05). On FAF, no change of treatment spots was found after treatment. No structural laser damage was observed on optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), and no choroidal neovascularization was observed. CONCLUSION: SML treatment of acute CSC can improve BCVA, RLS, and perfusion area of CCL, reduce CRT, increase SRVD and DRVD, and is safe.

    • Photoreceptor changes in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy with m.G11778A mutation

      2023, 16(6):928-932. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2023.06.15

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      Abstract:AIM: To evaluate the functional and structural changes of photoreceptors in patients and asymptomatic carriers with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) using full-field electroretinography (FERG) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). METHODS: Individuals diagnosed with LHON at the Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University and their family members were included in this cross-sectional observational study. The FERG a-wave amplitude of affected patients and asymptomatic carriers was analyzed. The thickness of the outer nuclear layer (ONL), inner and outer segment (IS/OS) and total photoreceptors in the macular fovea and parafovea were measured. RESULTS: This study included 14 LHON patients (mean age: 20.00±9.37y), 12 asymptomatic carriers (mean age: 39.83±6.48y), and 14 normal subjects (mean age: 24.20±1.52y). The FERG results showed that the dark-adapted 3.0 electroretinography and light-adapted 3.0 electroretinography a-wave amplitudes of patients and carriers were significantly decreased (P<0.001). The ONL and photoreceptors layers were slightly thicker in patients than in normal subjects (P<0.05), whereas they were thinner in carriers (P<0.05). There were no differences in IS/OS thickness among the groups (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: Photoreceptors function is significantly impaired in LHON-affected patients and asymptomatic carriers. Meanwhile, photoreceptors morphology is slightly altered, mainly manifesting as a change in ONL thickness.

    • Vision rehabilitation using microperimetric biofeedback training in age-related macular degeneration

      2023, 16(6):933-938. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2023.06.16

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      Abstract:AIM: To determine the impact of microperimetric biofeedback training (MBFT) on the quality of vision in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: This study was a prospective, interventional, comparative study with subjects of patients diagnosed with AMD in the National Eye Center Cicendo Eye Hospital, Indonesia. Patients were randomly divided into two groups, intervention and non-intervention with 18 patients in each group. The intervention group would receive six MBFT training sessions of 10-minute time duration each. RESULTS: A statistically significant improvement of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was found after the intervention, from 1.24±0.416 to 0.83±0.242 (logMAR; P<0.001). A statistically significant improvement for near vision acuity (NVA) was also observed, from 1.02±0.307 logMAR to 0.69±0.278 logMAR (P<0.001). In addition, reading rate increased, from 40.83±30.411 to 65.06±31.598 words/min (P<0.001). Similarly, a comparison of changes in BCVA, NVA, and reading rate between intervention and non-intervention groups showed a significant difference (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: MBFT significantly and positively impacts visual acuity, NVA, and reading rate in patients with AMD.

    • 0.05% atropine on control of myopia progression in Chinese school children: a randomized 3-year clinical trial

      2023, 16(6):939-946. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2023.06.17

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      Abstract:AIM: To evaluate the effect of 0.05% atropine on the control of myopia for 2y (phase I) and on spherical equivalent refraction (SER) progression for 1y (phase II) after its withdrawal in Chinese myopic children. METHODS: Totally 142 children with myopia were randomly assigned to the 0.05% atropine group or to the placebo group. In phase I, children received 1 treatment for each eye daily. In phase II, the patients received no treatment. Axial length (AL), SER, intraocular pressure (IOP) and atropine-related side effects were assessed at 6 months’ intervals. RESULTS: During phase I, the mean change of SER was -0.46±0.30 D in the atropine group, compared to -1.72±1.12 D in the placebo group (P<0.001). The mean change of AL in the atropine group (0.26±0.30 mm) was significantly shorter than that in the placebo group (0.76±0.62 mm, P=0.002). In addition, in phase II (12mo after the withdrawal of atropine), there was no significant difference in AL change from the atropine group, when compared with that from the placebo group (0.31±0.25 mm vs 0.28±0.26 mm, P>0.05). Furthermore, the change in SER from the atropine group was 0.50±0.41 D, which was significantly lower than 0.72±0.60 D from placebo group, (P<0.05). Finally, there were no statistically significant differences in IOP between the treatment and control groups at any stages (all P>0.05). CONCLUSION: The use of 0.05% atropine for two consecutive years may effectively control elongation of AL and thus progression of myopia, without significant SER progression 1y after atropine withdrawal. Therefore, treatment with 0.05% atropine daily for 2y is effective and safe.

    • Chronic hypotony management using endoscopy-assisted vitrectomy after severe ocular trauma or vitrectomy

      2023, 16(6):947-954. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2023.06.18

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      Abstract:AIM: To report outcomes of endoscopy-assisted vitrectomy (EAV) in patients with chronic hypotony following severe ocular trauma or vitrectomy. METHODS: This was a retrospective, noncomparative case series. Ciliary bodies were evaluated using ultrasound biomicroscopy pre-operatively and direct visualisation intraoperatively. All selected individuals (seven patients/seven eyes) underwent EAV. Removal of ciliary membrane and traction, gas/silicone oil tamponade (GT/SOT), and scleral buckling (SB) were performed in selected eyes. Outcome measurements mainly included intraocular pressure (IOP) and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). RESULTS: Seven eyes from 7 male aphakic patients with a mean age of 45 (range, 20-68)y were included in this study; the average follow-up time was 12 (9-15)mo. GT was performed in 2 eyes; membrane peeling (MP) and SOT in 2 eyes; and MP, SOT, and SB in 3 eyes. The mean pre- and post-operative IOP were 4.5 (range, 4.0±0.11 to 4.8±0.2) mm Hg and 9.9 (range, 5.6±0.17 to 12.1±0.2) mm Hg at 52wk (12mo), respectively. BCVA improved in six eyes; one eye still showed light perception, and no bulbi phthisis was observed. CONCLUSION: Endoscopy offers improved judgment and recognition and has an improved prognosis for chronic hypotony. Therefore, endoscopy can be an effective and promising operative technique for chronic traumatic hypotony management.

    • >Investigation
    • Uncorrected refractive errors are important causes of avoidable visual impairment in Hungary: re-evaluation of two existing national data sets

      2023, 16(6):955-961. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2023.06.19

      Abstract (1078) HTML (0) PDF 723.18 K (171) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To review existing data for the prevalence of corrected, uncorrected, and inadequately corrected refractive errors and spectacle wear in Hungary. METHODS: Data from two nationwide cross-sectional studies were analysed. The Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness study collected population-based representative national data on the prevalence of visual impairment due to uncorrected refractive errors and spectacle coverage in 3523 people aged ≥50y (Group I). The Comprehensive Health Test Program of Hungary provided data on the use of spectacles in 80 290 people aged ≥18y (Group II). RESULTS: In Group I, almost half of the survey population showed refractive errors for distant vision, about 10% of which were uncorrected (3.2% of all male participants and 5.0% of females). The distance spectacle coverage was 90.7% (91.9% in males; 90.2% in females). The proportion of inadequate distance spectacles was found to be 33.1%. Uncorrected presbyopia was found in 15.7% of participants. In all age groups (Group II), 65.4% of females and 56.0% of males used distance spectacles, and approximately 28.9% of these spectacles were found to be inappropriate for dioptric power (with 0.5 dioptres or more). The prevalence of inaccurate distance spectacles was significantly higher in older age groups (71y and above) in both sexes. CONCLUSION: According to this population-based data, uncorrected refractive errors are not rare in Hungary. Despite recent national initiatives, further steps are required to reduce uncorrected refractive errors and associated negative effects on vision, such as avoidable visual impairment.

    • >Review Article
    • Epidemiological aspect of retinoblastoma in the world: a review of recent advance studies

      2023, 16(6):962-968. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2023.06.20

      Abstract (1221) HTML (0) PDF 472.97 K (262) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To collect and present updated evidence about epidemiological aspects of retinoblastoma (Rb) in the world. METHODS: A comprehensive search without the time and language restrictions was conducted in international databases, including MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, and PubMed. The search keywords were “retinoblastoma” OR “retinal Neuroblastoma” OR “retinal glioma” OR “retinoblastoma eye cancer” OR “retinal glioblastoma”. RESULTS: The worldwide incidence of Rb is 1 in 16 000-28 000 live births, but was higher in developing compared to developed countries. Several attempts for improving early detection and treatment had increased the Rb survival rate from 5% to 90% in developed countries over the past decade, but its survival was lower in developing countries (about 40% in low-income countries) and the majority of mortalities occurred in developing countries. The etiology of Rb could be viewed as genetics in the heritable form and environmental and lifestyle factors in the sporadic form. Some environmental risk factors such as in vitro fertilization; insect sprays; father’s occupational exposure to oil mists in metal working, and poor living conditions might play a role in the occurrence of the disease. Although ethnicity might affect Rb incidence, sex has no documented effect and the best treatment approaches were now ophthalmic artery chemosurgery and intravitreal chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: Determining the role of genetics and environmental factors helps to accurately predict the prognosis and identify the mechanism of the disease, which can reduce the risk of tumor development.

    • Role of 7-methylxanthine in myopia prevention and control: a mini-review

      2023, 16(6):969-976. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2023.06.21

      Abstract (1525) HTML (0) PDF 369.89 K (369) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Myopia is becoming increasingly common. By 2050 around 10% of the world’s population is expected to be highly myopic (<-5 diopters) and therefore particularly at risk of suffering from sight-threatening complications. Currently used myopia control treatments, such as multifocal soft contact lenses or spectacle lenses, orthokeratology, and atropine eyedrops, either do not completely arrest myopia progression or are associated with significant ocular and possibly systemic side effects. A new candidate for pharmaceutical control of myopia progression and excessive eye elongation, the non-selective adenosine antagonist 7-methylxanthine (7-MX), appears to be non-toxic and effective in reducing myopia progression and axial eye growth in experimental and clinical studies. The latest findings regarding 7-MX for myopia control and evaluate its potential as a supplement to existing treatment options were reviewed.

    • Posterior choroidal leiomyoma: new findings from a case and literature review

      2023, 16(6):977-983. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2023.06.22

      Abstract (1119) HTML (0) PDF 2.72 M (216) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Posterior choroidal leiomyoma is a sporadic, rare benign tumor that is always confused with anaplastic melanoma. Here we report a case and provide a review. Most of the preoperative findings in our case were suggestive of malignant choroidal melanoma. However, the contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) suggested a benign hemangioma. In summary, the posterior choroidal leiomyomas were yellowish-white in color and most commonly located in the temporal quadrant of the fundus (11/15). They were more frequent in Asians (13/16), the prevalence was almost equal in males and females (9:7), with a mean age of 35y. Microscopically, the tumor typically showed spindle cell bundles and nonmitotic ovoid nuclei arranged in intersecting fascicles. Vitrectomy is now a popular treatment option and definitive diagnosis can be made after immunohistochemistry. Finally, some summarized features of this tumor differ from those previously described. These may help in the diagnosis of posterior choroidal leiomyoma and differentiation from malignant melanoma.

    • >Brief Report
    • “Capsule drape wrap”—a new technology for iridoschisis management during phacoemulsification

      2023, 16(6):984-987. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2023.06.23

      Abstract (1185) HTML (0) PDF 879.98 K (219) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To introduce a new technique for iridoschisis management during phacoemulsification: “capsule drape wrap”. METHODS: “Capsule drape wrap” technique was used for an 80-year-old man with idiopathic iridoschisis in the right eye during phacoemulsification. The inserted flexible nylon iris hooks to hold anterior capsule in place, the margin of the anterior capsule could act as drape wrap, tracking the fibrillary iris strands firmly from free floating and stabilizing the capsular bags simultaneously. RESULTS: The eye with iridoschisis was successfully treated. Iris fibrils remained immobile during the procedure, and despite the severity of iridoschisis, there were no intraoperative complications such as tear of the iris, hyphema, iris prolapse, loss of mydriasis, or rupture of the posterior lens capsule during phacoemulsification. The best-corrected visual acuity was increased by 0.1 (logMAR) 6mo after the surgery. CONCLUSION: “Capsule drape wrap” for iridoschisis is easily manageable, prevents further disruption to the loose iris fibers and ensures the stability of capsule–iris complex simultaneously, consequently minimizing the risk of surgical complications in phacoemulsification.

    • >Letter to the Editor
    • Using eye drops in compliance may improve the symptoms and quality of life in patients with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis: analysis of a two-season web survey

      2023, 16(6):988-991. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2023.06.24

      Abstract (1118) HTML (0) PDF 567.98 K (188) Comment (0) Favorites


    • >Comment and Response
    • Comment on: Optic neuropathy and increased retinal glial fibrillary acidic protein due to microbead-induced ocular hypertension in the rabbit

      2023, 16(6):992-994. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2023.06.25

      Abstract (1195) HTML (0) PDF 1007.68 K (184) Comment (0) Favorites


Editors-in-Chief: Yan-Nian Hui and Peter Wiedemann

Established in April, 2008

ISSN 2222-3959 print

ISSN 2227-4898 online

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