Exosomes are nanoscale extracellular vesicles that are secreted by a variety of cells in the body. They carry particular miRNA, protein molecules, transcription factors, and other information molecules, and they play a role in the pathophysiological regulation of a number of diseases in the body. Exosomes can persist steadily in biological tissues and bodily fluids. Exosomes have quickly advanced in ophthalmology in recent years due to the extensive studies of exosomes in a variety of fields, such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, autoimmune uveitis, corneal disease, glaucoma, and other diseases. The number of people who are blind caused by diabetic retinopathy is rising as living standards rise. However, it is still unclear how diabetic retinopathy works. In recent years, many studies have found that exosomes play an important role in diabetic retinopathy. In this paper, the most recent developments in exosome studies as they relate to the pathogenesis and progression of diabetic retinopathy are reviewed.