Posner-Schlossman syndrome(PSS)is a sporadic and recurrent self-limiting anterior uveitis, and its pathogenesis remains unclear. It was considered to be a prostaglandin-mediated inflammatory response. In recent years, it has been found to be related to viral infection, immune genetics, vascular endothelial dysfunction, and other factors. Clinically, the disease is predominantly unilateral. The patients with PSS suffer from increased intraocular pressure, mild pain in the affected eye, as well as blurred vision, and irisopsia. Seldom damage to the optic nerve and visual field was reported. The commonly treatment of PSS is local medication, such as anti-inflammatory drugs and intraocular pressure lowering drugs; otherwise systemic medication can be employed in severe cases. Surgical treatment can be performed for PSS if uncontrolled intraocular pressure elevation, frequent attacks, and optic nerve damage and visual field defect due to prolonged disease course. Early diagnosis and treatment of PSS can effectively reduce glaucoma-related damages. This review discussed the research progress of PSS from various aspects, aiming to provide references for the etiology, pathogenesis, and clinical diagnosis and treatment of this disease.